I’m Sydney University Museum Studies student Dimity Kasz, and with Courtney, I am completing an internship here at the Maritime Museum. We’re registering the Lake Collection of shipwrights’ tools. Registering a collection includes accessioning, cataloguing, cleaning, and photographing the objects so they can live happily inside the museum with a full catalogue record to their name.
What on earth is caulking? This is just one of many ‘What the…?’ moments I had when I first delved into the world of shipwright’s tools as part of my internship experience at the Australian National Maritime Museum. I’m a student at The University of Sydney working toward my Master of Museum Studies degree and with fellow intern Dimity Kasz – for our recent internship project at the museum we have registered the Lake collection of shipwright’s tools. This collection of several hundred tools were owned by father and son Alfred and Bernard Lake date from around 1890 to 1950.
Registering a collection involves researching the objects and their context, cataloguing them and recording details such as general description, dimensions, markings and interesting features and assigning each object with a unique identifying number and collection record. To our surprise, we found this to be a very interesting set of tools, many of which were hand-made, passed from father to son.
But what exactly is caulking? Continue reading
Greetings my name is Candice Witton and I am working with Roxi Truesdale as an Intern in the Registration department at the Australian National Maritime Museum. Roxi and I have been accessioning the Higham shipwright tool collection into the museum database. I will be profiling some of the fascinating tools we have uncovered.
Of the 180 or so objects in the Higham collection we have had great success (so far) identifying the many (at first) boggling variations of tools. We have had some amazing reference material from the Vaughan Evans Library which we are so grateful for. Without this, we may have been left referring to the many different varieties of caulking irons as ‘chisels’ and helical auger drill bits as ‘spiral drills with screws on top’. Thankfully we have now been exposed to the fascinating world of shipwrighting, and the process of caulking.
Caulking is simply the method of sealing joints or seams. Caulking irons are used in a similar manner to chisels, hammering a fibrous material into the joints between wooden planks. This is done to make the vessel watertight and leak free.
Here we have two caulking irons from the Higham collection. On the left is a significantly older model than the relatively newer iron on the right. Traditional caulking on wooden vessels uses fibres of cotton and oakum – usually a material such as hemp fibre soaked in pine tar. These specific irons are known as sharp or butt irons, and they are used for forcing the caulk into narrow areas.
Here are two reefing or clearing irons from the Higham collection. The left iron is an older model than the one on the right. Reefing irons were used to scrape out old oakum, to clean the seams to make way for new caulking.
The Higham tool collection contains many variants on auger drill bits. Here is a standard bit, which features a rotating helical blade and a screw to pull it into the wood. This bit is to be used in a hand-brace, and is effective at moving wooden material out of the hole being drilled.
One object in the Higham tool kit remains a bit of a mystery. This object seems quite unusual, and after consultation with tool experts we were left stumped. It is most possibly a variation on a cold chisel, and after doing extensive online research this is what it most closely resembles. Regardless how I phrased my searches, I still returned numerous references to Jimmy Barnes!
What is also curious are the manufacturers logos “Plumb (Aust) PT” on one side, “Fern Tools” with fern frond on the other. I discovered W H Plumb Australia is of axe making fame, but beyond that we haven’t had a lot of luck!
So there you have a small sample of some of the many, many interesting tools of the Higham tool collection. You can read Roxi’s awesome blog detailing our first contact with the tool collection, and curator Stephen Gapp’s fascinating blog on the origins of the collection. Stay tuned for more intern blogs as we explore the time and place that these tools were used.
Hi, my name is Roxi Truesdale and I am working together with Candice Witton on an internship project within the Registration department of the Australian National Maritime Museum.
Our project involves registering a collection of shipwright tools that belonged to a father and son, Thomas and William Higham, which curator Stephen Gapps has previously written a wonderful post about.
When I first set eyes upon the collection I had no idea where to start. The extent of my knowledge of tools was being able to tell the difference between a flat head and Phillips head screwdriver. However, after a couple of weeks with the Higham collection I am now relatively convinced that I could build a boat. (It would probably sink once it got into the water but at least it would resemble a boat.)
It would be safe to say that Candice didn’t know much more than I did about tools and so this has been quite the learning experience for us both. While we have been educating ourselves on which tools do what, we have had to resort to coming up with a few nicknames in the meantime. So, at the risk of truly exposing my ignorance I will share them with you now.
This tool had us completely puzzled. We could not find it in any of our shipwright tool reference books. Before learning the name of this incredibly common tool thanks to some handy friends on Facebook we referred to it as a ‘flute’. This might have been in part inspired by the fondness for dancing and music that we had discovered in shipwright documentaries from the mid-20th century.
While we were able to find this tool eventually within our reference books we did give it another name previously and it continues to be known fondly as the ‘space invader’.
However, despite its otherworldly appearance this tool is not an alien from an 80’s videogame and was used by shipwrights to smooth out and shape pieces of wood.
And finally there were the tools that we had a pretty good idea of what they were but couldn’t help letting our imagination get the better of us.
We knew that this tool was some type of wrench but until we found out its exact name it was the ‘triceratops’, despite it looking less prehistoric than some of the other tools in the collection.
But for now I must get back to working out what the rest of these shipwright tools are. Keep an eye out for more posts from myself and Candice over the coming weeks.
The museum was recently offered a set of shipwright tools – not an unusual occurence. However with some investigation, this particular collection began to reveal an interesting story.
The tools were owned by William Higham (b.1895) and his father Thomas Higham. According to Higham family history, Thomas Higham and his brother Charles ran a shipyard near Greenwich on the Thames River, London.
A photograph dated 1902 shows Thomas on the deck of the Giralda at Pipers Wharf, Greenwich. James Piper built sailing barges at this wharf he rented from late 1890s. They were heavy haulage carriers, still built with sail at a time when most vessels were steam driven. Sailing barges were cheap to run and only needed a crew of two. With their shallow draught and flat bottom they could go inshore, across shallows and up tidal creeks. Many would also cross the channel and go into European inland waters, or, with masts lowered could be used on canals – even through tunnel canals such as the one that connected the Medway with the River Thames, interestingly called the Higham Tunnel.
The Giralda was one one of Piper’s earliest sailing barges from the 1890s and was renowned as a prize winning racing barge. Barge races are still held in Britain today.
Thomas Higham’s son William worked with his father in what according to family history was known as the Higham Shipyard, although it is unclear whether the family photograph of Thomas on the Giralda indicates he was a builder for Piper’s business, or whether he indeed had his own yard nearby.
William migrated to Australia in 1920. He was a trained naval architect and shipbuilder and entered shipbuilding work in Newcastle. When the Depression hit in 1930 he went back to England and according to his daughter Joan Copp, worked in the Higham Shipyard during the 1930s.
In 1939 William was seconded to the Australian Navy and came to Garden Island, Sydney. He continued to worked there until he reitred at the age of 65, when the naval dockyard apparently provided a ‘terrific send off’ for him.
The collection of William’s and his father’s tools remained with his family, still in its purpose built boxes. It includes handmade wood planes, drills and drill bits, adzes, saws, caulking tools, among other items. It is a very complete range of shipwright tools, kept in good condition. Most are engraved with the initials WH and TH. The TH initialed tools were first owned by Thomas Higham and many ended up, presumably handed down, in William’s tool boxes.
Several of the Thomas Higham owned tools would appear to date from the late 1800s. William’s tool box thus contains two generations of shipwright tools – showing a great continuity of usage right up to the 1950s; a testament to their owners, as well as to the fact certain woodworking tools remained useful and unchanged over many years.
However there is little information on Higham’s Shipyard near Greenwich. If anyone can add further information to the intriguing story of the tools that appear to have worked on sailing barges in the Thames and carried on to be used at Garden Island in Sydney, please let us know!